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About 2.5 million years BCE, some humans began to make stone tools (like very crude choppers and hand-axes), and newer species like Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis emerged (brain capacity 590-690 cc).
By 2 million years BCE more species of humans appeared, such as Homo erectus (brain capacity 800-1250 cc).
For fact-addicts, the Pleistocene is the third stage in the Neogene period or 6th epoch of the Cenozoic Era.
(c.10,000 BCE - now) During its prehistory section this geological period saw the birth of Human civilization, as well as a range of sophisticated paintings, bronze sculptures, exquisite pottery, pyramid and megalithic monomental architecture.
(Animal drawings using regular side-profiles, for instance, are typically older than those using three-quarter profiles.) For a chronological list of dates and events associated with Stone Age culture, see: Prehistoric Art Timeline.
The very early hominids included species like Australopithecus afarensis and Paranthropus robustus (brain capacity 350-500 cc).
During the following 500,000 years, Homo erectus spread from Africa to the Middle East, Asia and Europe.
Between 1.5 million BCE and 500,000 BCE, Homo erectus and other variants of humans engendered more highly developed types of Homo, known as Archaic Homo sapiens.
Brain performance is directly associated with a number of "higher" functions such as language and creative expression.
The consensus among most most paleontologists and paleoanthropologists, is that the human species (Homo) split away from gorillas in Africa about 8 million BCE, and from chimpanzees no later than 5 million BCE.
It was a group of artists from one of these Archaic Homo sapiens species that created the Bhimbetka petroglyphs and cupules in the Auditorium cave situated at Bhimbetka in India, and at Daraki-Chattan. From 500,000 BCE onwards, these new types morphed into Homo sapiens, as exemplified by Neanderthal Man (from 200,000 BCE or earlier).