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The clinical definition used to define a case of typhoid fever is nonstandardized and relies on physician judgment.Bacteriologic confirmation required isolation of Typhi from a blood or stool sample.Central governmental edict required a minimum 25-day hospitalization of patients with typhoid fever; hospitals in Dushanbe were filled to capacity and most accepted only patients with typhoid fever.Initial laboratory reports indicated that the epidemic strain of ) was resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics for typhoid fever treatment.In mid-1996, an epidemic of typhoid fever began in southern Tajikistan .
We found control homes by going door-to-door systematically from the associated case home.
The water distribution system is interconnected, and different areas of the city are supplied with varying amounts of water from the four plants. During water outages, negative pressure is created in water pipes that draw surrounding contaminants into the water supply.
Many apartment buildings have supplemental water pumps that are activated at times of low water pressure, causing negative pressure in nearby municipal pipes.
MICs of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were determined for 4 isolates by Etest (AB Biodisk, Piscataway, NJ).
We selected households for water quality and wastage testing using stratified random sampling by individual clinic area.Patients were interviewed within 5 days of hospital admission by a trained interviewer using a standard questionnaire.