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01-May-2017 05:47

Such use is prohibited by the rules of the governing bodies of most sports.AAS use occurs among adolescents, especially by those participating in competitive sports. There are four common forms in which AAS are administered: oral pills; injectable steroids; creams/gels for topical application; and skin patches. Testosterone administered by mouth is rapidly absorbed, but it is largely converted to inactive metabolites, and only about one-sixth is available in active form.Studies indicate that the anabolic properties of AAS are relatively similar despite the differences in pharmacokinetic principles such as first-pass metabolism.However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses.are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.They are anabolic and increase protein within cells, especially in skeletal muscles, and also have varying degrees of androgenic and virilizing effects, including induction of the development and maintenance of masculine secondary sexual characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair.The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate, testosterone enanthate, testosterone cypionate, and testosterone propionate), Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone, oxandrolone, mesterolone, and oxymetholone, as well as drostanolone propionate, metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone.

Testosterone can be administered parenterally, but it has more irregular prolonged absorption time and greater activity in muscle in enanthate, undecanoate, or cypionate ester form.Most of these side-effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure, especially in those with pre-existing hypertension.A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use AAS.For many years, AAS have been by far the most detected doping substances in IOC-accredited laboratories.

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Studies in the United States have shown that AAS users tend to be mostly middle-class heterosexual men with a median age of about 25 who are noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes and use the drugs for cosmetic purposes.

AAS use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia (which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiol), may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase.